ACCA考试《P1专业会计师》笔记1
儿童文学
来源:本站
2019-09-05

ACCA考试《P1专业会计师》笔记1

  PartA-GovernanceandResponsibility    Principles-basedapproach  (1)Principles-basedapproachrequiresthecompanytoadheretothespiritratherthantheletterofcode.  (2)Theapproachesfocusonobjectivesratherthanthemechanismsbywhichtheseobjectiveswillbeachieved.  (3)Theapproachescanlaystressonthoseelementsofcorporategovernancetowhichrulescannoteasilybeapplied.  (4)Theapproachescanappliedacrossdifferentlegaljurisdictionsratherbeingfoundedinthelegalregulationsofonecountry.  (5)Theapproachesavoidinflexiblelegislationandallowscompaniestodeveloptheirownapproachestocorporategovernance.  (6)Theapproachesaretooboardtobeusedasaguidetobestcorporategovernancepractice.  (7)Theremaybeconfusionoverwhatiscompulsoryandwhatisnt.  Rules-basedapproach  (1)Rules-basedapproachplace  (2)  (3)Itsho  (4)Itisrigidanddifficulttodealwithquestionablesituationthatarenotcoveredsufficientlyintherulebook.  Influenceofownership:  Insidersystems  Insidersystemiswherecompaniesareownedandcontrolledbyasmallnumberofmajorshareholders,whichmaybemembersofthecompanysfoundingfamily.  (Advantages)  (1)anagement.  (2)Itiseasiertoinfluencecompanymanagementeveniftheownersarenotinvolvedinmanagement.  (3)  (Disadvantages)  (1)Theremaybediscriminationagainstminorityshareholdersandlackofminorityshareholdersprotections.  (2)Insidersystemstendnottobemonitoredeffectivelyandmaybereluctanttoemployoutsidersininfluentialposition.  (3)Insidersystemsoftendontdevelopmoreformalgovernancestructures.  (4)Insidersystemsmaybemorepronetoopaquefinancialtransactionsandmisuseoffund.  Outsidersystems  Outsidersystemsarecompanieswhereshareholdingismorewidelydispersed,andthereisthemanager-ownershipseparation.  (Advantages)  (1)Theseparationofownershipandmanagementhasprovidedanimpetusforthedevelopmentofmorerobustgovernancetoprotectshareholders.  (2)Shareholdershavevotingrightsthattheycanusetoexercisecontrol.  (3)Hostiletakeoversbecomefarmorefrequentandthiskindofthreatsactasadiscipliningmechanismoncompanymanagement.  (Disadvantages)  (1)Companiesaremorelikelytohaveanagencyproblemandsignificantcostsofagency.  (2)Largershareholdershaveoftenhadshort-termpriorities.  Stakeholdersincorporategovernance  (1)Stakeholdersareanyentity(person,groupornon-humanentity)  (2)Stakeholdertheoryindicatesthatlargecompanieshavesignificantimpactonsocietysothattheycannotonlyberesponsibletotheirshareholders,buthaveaccountabilitytoabroadrangeofstakeholders.  (3)Companiesshouldconcentrateonemployees,creditorsandgovernmentaswellasbehaveethicallyandhaveregardfortheenvironmentandsocietyasawhole.    (Instrumentalview)  (1)Fromthepointofinstrumentalview,themotivationofcompaniestofulfilltheresponsibilitiestowardsstakeholdersisthattheybelievethatitwouldhaveanimpactonmaximizingcompanysprofitsifnottodoso.  (2)Thecompaniesdonthaveanymoralstandpointofitsown,thereforeisdevoidofanymoralobligation.  (Normativeview)  (1)Fromthepointofnormativeview,themotivationofcompaniestofulfilltheresponsibilitiestowardsstakeholderisthattheyhaveconsciousnessofacceptingmoraldutytowardsothers.  (2)Thecompaniesisaltruistic,andhaveethical,philanthropicresponsibilitiesinadditiontoeconomic,legalresponsibilities.。